Chandrayaan-3, India’s 3rd moon mission achieved a big milestone on August 23, 2023. Chandrayaan-3 took off on July 14, 2023, at 2:35 pm IST from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. After 42 days, on August 23, 2023, at 6:03 pm, the lander Vikram and the rover Pragyan made a soft landing near the South Pole of the Moon.
India’s 2nd moon mission Chandrayaan-2 which was supposed to make a soft landing faced difficulties and consequently failed to do so. After that ISRO worked hard for about 4 years to plan and prepare Chandrayaan-3 mission. ISRO collaborated with various companies and international agencies to build advanced technologies. This successful mission has not only enhanced India’s reputation but also established the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) as a leading space agency across the world. This mission was economical as compared to previous moon missions by other countries. The budget of Chandrayaan -3 was about $74 million.
Previous records, Chandrayaan-3 the success and cost-effectiveness of ISRO will attract many developed and developing nations to consider ISRO to launch their satellites and spacecraft. This event has further strengthened India’s position as a leading space superpower.
Role of public and private companies in Chandrayaan-3 mission
ISRO has led all the lunar missions of the Chandrayaan series, but there has been a significant participation of the private sector in the supply of components for them.
For the Chandrayaan-3 mission, along with ISRO the public sector companies, private sector companies, and international agencies like NASA worked together to make this mission successful. These companies take it as a matter of pride for them being part of ISRO’s space missions.
The path for the participation of the public sector opened when NSIL ( NewSpace India Limited ) was given responsibility for technology transfer to the Indian Industry under the new Indian Space Policy 2023.
The new Indian Space Policy 2023 allowed private sector participation in the space sector by allowing ISRO and its wings to collaborate with the private sector. This policy extends the contribution to the space sector far beyond the walls of ISRO’s research centers. The success of this Chandrayaan -3 mission has helped in boosting India’s industries especially the private sector with more than 400 companies working to contribute to the space sector.
The list of Public, Private Industries and Space Agencies who played a vital role in the success of the mission
1. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
ISRO is the Indian government-owned agency responsible for space research and exploration. ISRO was responsible for the complete planning and execution of the Chandrayaan-3 mission.
2. National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL)
Hindustan Aeronautics-L&T consortium gave several components to the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL). The NAL tested the launch vehicle for the Chandrayaan-3 mission.
3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
The Chandrayaan-3 lander has a special auxiliary instrument called the ‘Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA),’ that was supplied by NASA to ISRO. This lightweight instrument with eight Retroreflectors serves as a long-term geodetic station and a location marker on the moon’s surface.
4. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL)
The public sector company has supplied many important items useful for the mission of the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL). HAL manufactured the Vikram lander, which is part of the spacecraft that will land on the moon. HAL is a big public sector company involved in helicopter, and aircraft manufacturing and maintenance.
5. Godrej Aerospace
Mumbai-based Godrej Aerospace, a space sector company of Godrej Industries, has prepared many important essentials For the Chandrayaan-3 mission like the rocket engine and thruster of the vehicle. The company has developed Chandrayaan’s Vikas engine, CE20 engine thrust chamber for the upper stage, and satellite thrusters at Godrej Aerospace’s Vikhroli facility in Mumbai. Apart from this, the company also manufactured the L110 engine for the core stage of the mission. In ISRO’s earlier missions also company has also played a significant role. The company has provided indigenously developed components for Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2 as well as Mangalyaan mission.
6. Himson Industrial Ceramic (HIC)
Himson Industrial Ceramic, a Surat-based ceramic company, has supplied important modules to protect Chandrayaan-3 equipment from extreme temperatures. The Squibs, a critical component prepared by the company is able to safeguard wiring, the vehicle and its parts from heat even at a temperature of 3,000 degree celsius.
7. TATA Steel
Tata Steel, a Tata group company, has played an important role in the successful launch of Chandrayaan-3. In fact, the electric overhead traveling (EOT) crane manufactured by Tata Steel in Tata Growth Shop located in Jamshedpur, played an important role in assembling the launch vehicle LVM3 M4 (dubbed as ‘Fat Boy’) at the Satish Dhawan Space Center at Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. This cooperation has been mentioned in the statement issued by the company.
The company’s cutting-edge crane technology played a crucial role in the seamless assembly of the launch vehicle used in the landmark moon mission.
8. Larsen And Toubro (L&T)
The aerospace unit of engineering and construction company L&T, has played an important role in developing many parts in Chandrayaan-3. Issuing a statement on this matter, the company had said in the past that it has contributed to the making of LVM-3 M-4. Chandrayaan-3’s medium and nodal bucket flares have been manufactured at the company’s manufacturing plant in Powai, Maharashtra. L&T’s unit in Coimbatore was also involved in some parts of Chandrayaan-3.
The Booster Segment of the vehicle has been also prepared by the company, which includes the head end segment, middle segment and nozzle bucket flange. India’s space center in Sriharikota also uses L&T’s tracking radar used to monitor launch vehicles.
9. BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited)
Batteries for Chandrayaan-3 mission were supplied to ISRO by BHEL. Bi-metallic adapters for Chandrayaan have also been provided by the Welding Research Institute (WRI) of BHEL.
10. Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL)
Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was involved in manufacturing payloads for Chandrayaan-3. The Bengaluru-based company provides products and services for five key product verticals, including defense and space optics, defense electronics, and heavy engineering.
11. Ananth Technologies Limited (ATL)
The name of Ananth Technologies Limited, Hyderabad is also included in the list of companies supplying equipment to ISRO for this Moon mission. ATL is associated with the manufacturing of various electronics as well as mechanical sub-systems for ISRO’s launch vehicles, satellites, spacecraft payloads and ground systems.
12. Mishra Dhatu Nigam (MIDHANI)
Alloy maker Mishra Dhatu Nigam (MIDHANI) supplied critical materials such as cobalt base alloys, nickel base alloys, titanium alloys and special steels for various components including the lander’s heat shield and the rover’s wheels of the launch vehicle used in the third moon mission.
13. Paras Defence & Space Technologies (PDST)
Paras Defence and Space, a private sector company, was involved in the design, development, manufacturing and testing of defense and space engineering products and solutions. This company has also been a major supplier for the Chandrayaan-3 mission. ISRO has transferred a few technologies to PDST through an agreement between the company and New Space India Limited (NSIL).
14. Centum Electronics
Centum Electronics has supplied critical modules, components and systems for the mission. It was an exciting moment for the company as a contributor to the mission.
15. Sri Venkateswara Aerospace
Sri Venkateswara Aerospace is an Indian private sector Company in aerospace. It has been credited for manufacturing several structural parts for the Chandrayaan-3 including the lander’s legs and the rover’s chassis.
16. Linde India
Linde’s contribution to space missions includes providing special gases needed for various phases of rocket propulsion and satellite operations.
17. MTAR Technologies
MTAR Technologies also manufactured key components for the mission at its facility in Balanagar, Hyderabad. MTAR Technologies supplied cryogenic engine subsystems including the Vikas engine, turbo pump, booster pump, gas generator and injector head and electro-pneumatic module for the Launch Vehicle Mark-III (LVM 3). MTAR is working towards manufacturing high-precision shafts, components, and assemblies.
Kerala state government undertaking supplied 41 electronics modules and various power modules for the Chandrayaan-3 mission. Keltron provided interface packages, avionics packages, power modules for Chandrayaan -3 and test and evaluation support on the satellite launch vehicle LVM3. Keltron also provided test and evaluation support for the project. Units like the Keltron Equipment Complex in Karakulam, Thiruvananthapuram, Keltron Communication Complex in Manvila and Bangalore Marketing Office were behind the delivery.
19. Kerala Minerals and Metals (KMML)
Kerala Minerals and Metals (KMML) supplied titanium sponge alloys for critical components. The Titanium Sponge Plant at KMML, which was set up using the technology developed by the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), a unit of DRDO, provided the titanium sponge metal for making the engine components of the space vehicle according to a report.
20. Kortas Industries Pvt Ltd
The company contributed several subassemblies for the booster stage (S200), the core stages (L110), and the cryogenic stage (C25), including components for the CE20 cryo engine of the LVM3 launch vehicle. Kortas Industries, an aerospace manufacturing company located in Veli, provided numerous sub-assemblies for various stages of the mission.
21. Chakradhara Aerospace and Cargo Private Limited (CACPL)
CACPL based in Coimbatore, manufactured some of the key aerospace components — engine modules, torque motors and pressure transducers. According to the company, its state-of-the-art technology and team-crafted essential components propelled Chandrayaan-3’s success. The company provided the accelerometer for vibration monitoring and motors for actuation in the ground stage. It also supplied transducers, actuators for the Chandrayaan orbiter, thrusters, and flow control valves for the Vikram Lander and Pragyaan Rover.
22. Jindal Stainless Limited (JSL)
The company provided high-strength alloy steel for the motor casing contained heat-resistant materials that shielded the motor from shocks and high temperatures. According to reports this material was developed over three years using advanced refining processes and did away with the need for imports.
23. Tata Consulting Engineers Limited (TCE)
TCE produces unique and indigenously designed critical systems and sub-systems custom-built for the successful launch of space missions. TCE concocted the solid propellant plant, the vehicle assembly building and the mobile launch pedestal.
24. Omnipresent Robotic Technologies Ltd
The Company has developed the software used for processing images on the Pragyaan rover.
25. Semiconductor Laboratory (SCL)
This company fabricated the Vikram Processor (1601 PE01) for LVM3 launch vehicle navigation and the CMOS Camera Configurator (SC1216-0) flown on board for the Vikram lander imager camera.
26. Vajra Rubber Products
Vajra Rubber Products Supplied the S-200 Thrust vector control flex seal for the Launch Vehicle Mark-III (LVM3) M4 rocket to propel it.
Satellite communications provider Avantel, one of the major customers of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), also played a key role in the mission. Avantel Limited is engaged in the design, development and maintenance of wireless and satellite communication products, defense electronics, radar systems and network management software applications for its customers primarily from the aerospace and defense sectors.
28. Bharat Forge
Bharat Forge Limited provided a Forge for the mission. It is an Indian multinational company involved in forging, automotive, energy, construction and mining, railways, marine, aerospace and defense industries.
29. PTC Industries
They supplied pump interstage housing for chandrayaan-3 mission. PTC Industries Limited has been manufacturing high-quality engineering components for various critical and super-critical applications.
30. Zen Technologies Limited
This Company also played a very significant role in the success of the mission. It is an India-based company that designs, develops, and manufactures systems, based on sensors and simulators for the defense sector and Aerospace sector.
31. Ankit Aerospace
Ankit Aerospace Company has manufactured and supplied alloy steel, stainless steel fasteners and specially-made titanium bolts for the mission. The supply was instrumental in enhancing mission durability and performance.
32. Sundram Fasteners
The Company had provided fasteners for the launch of the mission according to reports.
33. Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants India Limited (MECON)
A core team of 50 engineers from MECON designed the launching pad for ISRO. MECON Steel takes pride in the conceptualization, engineering and implementation of the Intensive Vehicle Assembly Building, Umbilical Tower and Launch Pad, which provided the base for the launch of the GSLV.
34. Heavy Engineering Corporation (HEC)
HEC designed the launching pad. It has made the Horizontal Sliding Door, Folding cum Vertical Repositionable Platform (FCVRP), Mobile Launching Pedestal and 10 Ton Hammer Head Tower Crane for GSLV. The 10-ton hammerhead tower crane is to maintain the balance of the rocket.
This Chennai-based company made equipment for the launching pad.
36. Walchandnagar Industries Limited (WIL)
Walchandnagar Industries Limited based in Pune, produced and supplied critical booster segments S200 used in the LVM3 launch vehicle and LVM3-M4s subsystems like flex nozzle control tankages and S200 Flex nozzle hardware delivered to ISRO. It was at WIL’s exclusive facility where they performed proof pressure tests specifically (the 3.2 diameter dimensions head end, middle and nozzle end segments).
Steel and Industrial Forgings Limited (SIFL), helped to make the rocket. SIFL provided titanium and aluminium forgings and other accessories.
The Travancore Cochin Chemicals Limited (TCC) is a Kochi-based company that was also part of India’s Chandrayaan-3 moon mission. Chandrayaan 3 uses sodium chlorate crystal manufactured by this PSU. Nowadays sodium chlorate crystal is the raw material used to make the solid fuel needed for rocket propulsion. About 350 tonnes of sodium chlorate crystals have been supplied to TCC.
According to a report, there were many other companies that were involved in manufacturing and supplying various components (details are not available) for the Chandrayaan-3, namely:-
39. SIDCO : Small Industries Development Corporation Limited (Kerala SIDCO)
40. KAL : Kerala Automobiles Limited (KAL)
44. Kannan Industries
46. Perfect Metal Finishers
47. Karthika Surface Treatment
48. Jojo Industries
49. Vajra Rubber
50. Anand Technologies
52. Rayen International signal
53. Jocyt Aerospace
The above list is not the complete list of the companies who were part of the Chandrayaan-3 mission but the name that was available on internet sources. there were many more companies and agencies who contributed directly or indirectly to the mission.